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James Craig老师分享的烘焙哲学,对你有帮助

作者:原创投稿2020-07-09 14:02分类:烘焙百科

James Craig澳大利亚烘焙师,2014年-2015年蝉联澳洲烘焙赛冠军,Q-Grader,鼓手、摇滚音乐人、歌词作家。

I was going to talk more about thermocouples and their importance to consistent temperature data in this article, but as I was writing it evolved into more “The philosophy of Ganjing.”And I realized while it’s very important to make people aware and talk about the role of good temperature data, all these numbers, graphs and lines mean nothing unless you are tasting coffee properly and are calibrated to the flavours of a clean roast development.

这一期我要和大家讨论一下关于热电偶和它对温度数据一致性的重要性,但可能会涉及到更多关于“干净哲学”以及更深层的东西。当我在思考如何把“干净哲学”讲给大家的时候,我意识到除非你能品鉴出一杯干净咖啡的风味,并且对里面的各种风味进行校准,否则这一切的温度数据、其他数据和曲线都将毫无意义。

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So, let’s start to break this down, each different coffee roaster is designed quite differently and each gives its own temperature readings according to what thermocouple they are using and where they have been placed around the roasting machine, and each brand and model has their own inherent efficiencies or inefficiencies. It takes an experienced roaster to know this, someone who has used many different brands of roasters understands well that we can achieve the same temperature data from two different brands of roaster, and the flavour development is very different. This is why it becomes so difficult to transfer data from roaster to roaster;the make and design of each different machine has its own particular effect onthe flavour development of the coffee. There are people in the industry who publicly say that only the roasting curve or profile determines the flavour ofthe coffee, but I do not believe this to be true at all.

让我们来解构一下这个概念,不同的咖啡烘焙机在设计研发的时候,根据所用热电偶种类的不同、放置位置的不同,测出的温度数值是不尽相同的; 对不同品牌的咖啡烘焙机来说,其测温模型也存在着高效与低效之分别(就准确度和可用性来说)。对于一个用过不同品牌烘焙机、有经验的烘焙师来说,他能够在两台不同的烘焙机上做到完全复制温度曲线,并且对于完全相同的温度曲线却烘出完全不同的味道这个事实,也有着深刻的理解。这也就是为什么我们不提倡在不同的机器上完全复制温度曲线,要知道不同的烘焙机的设计与制造对咖啡风味发展的影响是截然不同的。我听到一些人声称咖啡的风味只取决于烘焙曲线与相关数据,但我不同意这一点。

Each different machine is made from varying grades of metals, they each have different airflow, different barrel speeds,different types of burners, different burner positions, and all give slightly (sometimes acutely) different development of flavours, even if you get exactly the same data on your roasting software. Light roasting certainly lessens the impact of the flavour from each different machine, but it’s when you start to roast darker that the differences really become noticeable. Coffee roasted to 218-220℃ using Cropster profiling software on a Loring Roaster, will taste very different to the same coffee roasted on a Probat or Gieson to the same temperatures and using the same Cropster software.The only people I’ve heard dispute this are people that are somehow connected to roasting machine sales from different companies.

不同的烘焙机所用的金属材料等级也不同,另外不同的进气流量、转筒转速、不同类型的火排及其安装位置,这些都或多或少(有时关键性地)决定了咖啡风味的不同发展结果,尽管你做到了曲线的完美复制,也不尽如人意。这种影响对于浅度烘焙的咖啡豆来说差别不大,但是当你烘得更深的时候,咖啡风味就会有天壤之别。比如说,你用Cropster的软件装在Loring烘焙机上的时候,烘焙温度到达218-220摄氏度,和你用相同软件装在Probat和Gieson复制相同的温度曲线,烘出来的咖啡豆味道会完全不同。那些声称曲线一致风味就会一致(不论是什么机器)的人往往都是急于想把他们手里的机器卖出去而已。

Essentially, it doesn’t really matter which thermocouples you use, where you position them or which software you use. What matters is your understanding of the physics and chemical reactions taking place during the roasting cycle, and how connected you and your pallet are to that process. When you truly understand the concept of a clean development, it’s a dynamic your trying to achieve over all roasters. Once you’re calibrated to the flavour profile of cleanliness, it becomes very difficult to accept any less, and anything not roasted well becomes very easy to identify. “Once you’ve eaten fillet steak, you don’t really want sausages any more.

根本上,不论你用哪种热电偶,把它们放置在什么地方,或是用什么软件进行监测,重点在于你要清楚烘焙过程中的物理变化和化学反应,以及你如何整合和驾驭这个过程。一旦你真正理解了干净烘焙的概念,你就有一种很强的动力去搞定所有烘焙机。一旦你校准了干净咖啡的风味特征,就很难再去接受那些不干净的烘焙,而且瞬间就能辨识出来。就像“一旦你尝试过了菲力牛排,就很难再有吃香肠的欲望了”。

The concept is a balance of variables that must be controlled to create a clean set of flavour chemistry in the coffee from the balance of physics around and inside the drum while the coffee is roasting. Everything is relative, bean mass/size of barrel, physiology of the bean, air velocity, air temperature, barrel speed, paddles inside the drum (to agitate the beans), the ambient heat throughout the system; all these variables are finely tuned and balanced in different ways in every different brand of roaster according to the companies perception of flavour development. Some have much higher air flow than others, some have burners much closer to the barrel than others, they all use many different types and grades of metal and they allhave different ideas of insulating the drum and heat management, so, this is what makes it important to understand a clean development and how you need to manipulate each different machine to achieve a similar set of physics and in turn, a similar set of flavour chemistry.

这个概念其实是多种因素的平衡,这些因素是通过控制转筒内烘焙过程的物理平衡从而去建立一套干净的咖啡风味化学体系而形成的(通过控制物理参数去控制化学反应过程)。所有因素都是相对而言的:下豆量/转筒大小、豆子的生理机能、风速、风温、转筒速率、搅拌桨(用来搅拌咖啡豆)烘焙系统的环境温度。这些变量会基于不同烘焙机制造商对于咖啡风味发展的不同看法进行不同的精确调整与平衡。一些品牌会设计更高的进风量;一些品牌会把火排的位置设计在离转筒更近的地方;他们所用的金属种类和等级都有差别,另外对于保温隔热方式都有不同的见解,所以,对于不同机器如何通过利用相似的物理反应过程以达到相似的风味化学反应过程以达到干净烘焙,就显得更加重要了。

This really was the essence of the classesI designed, trying to build a concept of development and clean flavours fromthe roaster. Understanding that we need to develop a profile based on our own flavour memory recognition, not just based on a set of numbers, lines and graphs. It’s this sensibility that the person roasting develops after discovering what a clean roast is, and understanding the physics well enough to create a similar set of chemistry over many different machines, based on a feeling.

其实这就是我当初设计课程的初衷也是精华所在:尝试通过使用烘豆机去建立一个干净风味的概念。让大家认识到真正的烘焙曲线是要以我们自身的风味感官认知为基础的,而不是一套固定的数据、曲线和图表。这是一种对于干净烘焙的感知力,只有更好地理解物理过程以及其所操控的化学反应过程,才能在不同烘豆机的应用上真正做到烘焙能力的提升,这是一种感觉。

I know this sounds a little abstract to people who have learned to roast strictly with profiling software, but itreally is the essence of creating your own flavours and really understanding how your creating them. Most business, companies and home roasters have access to pretty much the same coffees and roasting machines, so it becomes very important to develop this concept to be able to express your coffee in a cleanand unique way.

我知道这对于完全热衷于烘焙曲线及各种数据的朋友们来说有些抽象,但真正的精华所在就是你构造咖啡风味以及如何构造的整个过程。大部分厂家、公司和烘焙爱好者的入门豆和烘豆机都差不多,所以如何基于这个概念,建立一套属于自己独特的干净风味看起来就相当重要了。


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